Saturday, March 14, 2020
Essay on Gangs-and-guns Wars Reasons and Causes Essay on Gangs-and-guns Wars: Reasons and Causes Essay on Gangs-and-guns Wars: Reasons and CausesViolence is a serious problem of the contemporary society. Every year so called gang wars take away lives of thousands of people.Ã Unfortunately, innocent people often become victims in these wars. Despite the fact that the government puts much effort trying to solve the problem of the high-crime level and the criminal war, the number of victims is still high. Dan Gardner in his article The Missing Piece to the Gang-Violence Debate states that drugs play an important role in the gang wars and it is hard to resolve the problem without taking this component into consideration. Drug distribution is a very profitable Ã¢â¬Å"businessÃ¢â¬ , and members of the gangs often die during wars for the influence in drug sphere. Ã I believe that selling Ã and taking drugs is an important problem of the contemporary society and it may be the root of other serious problems, such as high crime rate and violence. In addition, drugs bring enormous money to those who sell them and that is the reason they may have big influence in gangs-and-guns wars.In his article The Missing Piece to the Gang-Violence Dan Gardner speaks about possible reasons of the murders related to the gang wars. Garnder used to work as a policy adviser for the Minister of Education and Premier of Ontario. He knows the topic he discusses and shares his finding with his readers. He states that despite big effort dedicated to reduce the crime level gang wars take away a lot of lives every year. Dan Gardner traces certain correlations in the number of victims of these wars and he states that his findings bring him to the idea that drugs are the missing components in the gang wars. Each time police imprisoned drug lords or the leader of the drug dealing network the sudden increase of murders emerged. Gardner explains it by the gang wars for the leadership in the drug networks.Ã After his analyses Gardner comes to the conclusions that in reality drug wars b ecome the reason of big quantity of victims during the gangs-and-guns wars. Ã¢â¬Å"Yes, drugs are the missing piece in CanadaÃ¢â¬â¢s guns-and-gangs debate. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s true that gang culture, fatherless homes, poverty and other factors people are talking about may play a role. But in almost every case, the drug trade is the reason the trigger is squeezed. If the black market didnÃ¢â¬â¢t exist, neither would most of the bloodshedÃ¢â¬ (Gardner 235). Drug industry brings millions to its owners and that is why battle for the place in this industry is so fierce.Ã A lot of authors trace correlation between gang wars and drugs distribution. Ã The story repeats in different countries and sad statistics of homicides proves that drugs play a very important role in the gang wars. Police report Drugs, Gangs, and Crime: Urban Violence and the War on Drugs also names drugs as one of the main reasons of victims during criminal wars. Ã¢â¬Å"Chicago police believe that about one-third of the cityÃ¢â¬â¢s homicides and shootings are drug and gang related. This would suggest that gang violence is responsible for 300 or more deaths and several thousands of aggravated batteries per year in the city aloneÃ¢â¬ (Drugs, Gangs, and Crime: Urban Violence and the War on Drugs).Ã Ã The data from other sources also proves correlation between gang wars and drugs. Ã Specialists state that drug use is one of risk factors of joining gangs. The Rochester Youth Survey names negative life events, making friends with gang members and drugs as main risk factors of possible gang membership (Thornberry 174).Ã Similar results were achieved by the Seattle Social Development Project.Ã According to their report risk factors include bad study results, inclination to drugs, demonstrative behavior and Ã¢â¬Å"badÃ¢â¬ friends (Thornberry 174). In contrast, good socialization, conventional surrounding and strong personal system of beliefs minimize risk of joining the gang. Ã Th ese facts prove strong correlation between drug dealers and victims of the gang wars. National surveys also prove influence of drugs trade on the gang wars. The National Drug Intelligence Center reports that Ã¢â¬Å"gangs (including street gangs, prison gangs, and outlaw motorcycle gangs) are the primary retail distributors of drugs in the countryÃ¢â¬ (NDIC 2005). These facts prove close correlation between drugs and gang wars. Gang members control drug distribution and a lot of cases of homicide are connected with so called Ã¢â¬Å"drug warsÃ¢â¬ .Ã Criminal authorities turn to violence when they share the fields of drug distribution.Ã The National Alliance of Gang Investigators Associations also gives facts that prove drugs to be one of the reasons of the gang wars. The research made by these associations contains data from 455 agencies and most of them prove information about the close connection between drug dealing network, gang wars and victims of these wars (NAGIA 200 5).Since drug distribution has such great influence on gang wars and criminal levels, it would be logical to look for the ways out in order to resolve this problem. Unfortunately, the level of homicide and constant gang wars show that state policies are not very effective at the present moment. Despite the enormous effort put in, the attempts to resolve this problem is ineffective.Ã Gardner states that law enforcement does not give expected results. Moreover, statistic states that enforcement results in the increase of the homicide. Prohibition has negative effect on the level of violence. Trying to fight with the results of the problem we cannot solve it. In order to influence the problem of gang crimes we should try to influence its roots. As proved earlier, drugs are among the essential components of the gang violence. As states Gardner: Ã¢â¬Å"Wipe out the drug trade and the violence goes with itÃ¢â¬ (GardnerÃ 235). This effective method also seems to be unachievable at the present moment. In order to understand the situation better we must get a better understanding of the drug dealing system and drug addiction. As states Gardner, drug dealing network will not disappear even if the police throws all drug dealers to prison. The problem is not in drug dealers but in people who consume drugs. They create a demand and in response drug traders sell drugs to satisfy it. So, the problem lies on the deeper level than ordinary drug network. It deals with people who create the demand for drugs and, thus, influence drug distribution. Ã That is the reason old methods to fight gang crimes are not effective.Ã Politicians have to change the entire approach to the problem, otherwise the problem will not be solved. As Gardner points out: Ã¢â¬Å"Of course politicians donÃ¢â¬â¢t like to admit they arenÃ¢â¬â¢t omnipotent. And they really donÃ¢â¬â¢t want to say unpopular things in public, particularly during an election. And so both the Liberals and the Co nservatives have promised to deal with gang crime by, yet again, increasing law enforcement and boosting sentences. This will failÃ¢â¬ (Gardner 235). The problems of gang crimes and drug dealing need new approaches but in order to solve them it is necessary to know the nature of drug addiction.The problem of drug addiction is complex and multi-dimensioned. Despite the great effort put into the study of the problem of drug addiction there is no one defined explanation of its nature. Science and medicine fail, when the subject comes to addiction. Ã Ã Medicine cannot give definite answer concerning the nature of drug addiction. Ã Different policies aiming to reduce drug use have rather political than medial or scientific background. These policies are aimed to show to the society that government puts effort in order to resolve this problem, but in reality effectiveness of such programs is very low and we can notice it by studying the rates of drug addiction. Psychology profess or Bruce Alexander made a series of experiments, exploring the nature of drug addiction and came to unexpected and innovative conclusions. He Ã proves that the surrounding and conditions of life have major impact on the nature of Ã addiction. During his famous experiment Alexander placed addicted rats into two surroundings. One surrounding of usual cages and another contained real paradise for rats Ã¢â¬â complex structure with plenty of space for life and entertainment. The results of the experiment became unexpected. Rats which dwelled in very good conditions soon left their addiction and turned to normal life. He states that scientists and medical workers who look for the Ã reasons of drug addiction cannot find the right answer because we should look for it in sociology. As he states: Ã¢â¬Å"Addiction is neither a disease nor a moral failure, but a narrowly focused lifestyle with an intensity that partially compensates for a lack of adequate psychosocial integration. The function of addiction to drugs is no different from the function of addiction to any other habit or pursuitÃ¢â¬ Ã (Alexander 125). Alexander speaks about problems of the contemporary society which deprived people of their roots, of their usual way of life and meaning of life in general. Alexander gives social and economical reasons for these changes. He states that we cannot fight the problem of drug addiction until we solve social problems.Ã Money spent to fight the crimes connected with drugs or caused by their use could have brought more use if spent on different social problems. People use drugs not because they have such born characteristics. They turn to drugs because they are unhappy and lack sense in their lives. Social status and material factors also contribute to possible reasons of drug addiction. That is why authorities should pay attention to the level of life of the most unprotected social layers as one of the ways to deal with the drug problem.Jason Ziedenber gÃ¢â¬â¢s research on the gang crime Ganging up on communities? Putting gang crime in context also underlines the correlation between the activity of different gangs and the level of life. Ã According to his research gang crime does not happen everywhere. There are certain areas where the rates of gang crime are higher. After research it was found out that gang crime is higher in the poorer regions. This proves the idea that gang crime is connected with the income level and employment. Similar conclusions canÃ be found in KyriacouÃ¢â¬â¢s study of relationship between socioeconomic factors and gang violence in Los Angeles. According to the research results, Ã¢â¬Å"the strongest correlations with gang violence were employment and incomeÃ¢â¬ (Kyriacou et al 346). The correlation between gang crime, drug addiction and level of life is evident.Ã It is impossible to solve the problem of drug addiction and, thus, reduce crime rates until social are solved. If authorities and politicians take these facts into consideration we will get an opportunity to approach the solution of the problem of the gang crime.
Wednesday, February 26, 2020
Strategic - Essay Example Porter argues that strategy is about Ã¢â¬ËpositioningÃ¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬â not about Ã¢â¬Ëoperational effectivenessÃ¢â¬â¢. This essay is a critical discussion of this view. It also offers a comparison between PorterÃ¢â¬â¢s views and other perspectives such as those of MazzucatoÃ¢â¬â¢s, Mintzberg, Waters and Grant. Porter (1996 p. 62) attributes lack of sustainable profitability in an organization to the inability of management to differentiate between strategy and operational effectiveness. Under such circumstances, the tools for management such as benchmarking, outsourcing, and total quality management among others usually displace strategy, which lowers the chances of improving organizational performance through strategy. The operational effectiveness and strategy are significant for the organizational performance, but according to Porter, they are supposed to be treated differently as they operate in diverse ways. In his view, position accompanied by pattern, plan and standpoint are core to strategy. PorterÃ¢â¬â¢s dissatisfaction with the management that focuses on operational effectiveness rather than strategic positioning is represented in figure 1.0, whereby the total of all the available best practices within the organization or the value generated by the organization at a certain charge, available machinery, expertise, management practices, and procured inputs is represented by the productivity frontier (p. 63). This curve indicates that an improvement in the operational effectiveness leads to the advancement of the organization in the direction of the frontier. The frontier on the other hand is continuously budges outward as the company acquires new skills and machinery. In order to maintain this shift of the frontier, managers largely invest in organizational learning, career development and such activities that enhance organizational improvement. Organizational competitiveness is not
Monday, February 10, 2020
What Makes People Attractive to Others Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words - 1
What Makes People Attractive to Others - Essay Example As adults, they are more likely to be married, can pull off more sex partners, earn a higher salary, and have a better job. People can naturally trust them, and some perceive them to be healthier and smarter. They are more likely to be elected if they go into politics. Have we ever considered why do we categorize some features as attractive and others as less attractive? According to scientific research, it is all dependent upon oxidative stress and anti oxidants. However, for some people it can be subjective. Therefore, this paper would discuss the essential aspects, which makes people attractive to others. People have researched on the different facets of being attractive. Research shows that an attractive person has many life advantages, which an unattractive person might be vulnerable to. Some researcher however thinks that being attractive is simply a learned criterion. The school of thought who opposes this theory argues that attraction to specific features is not learned. But over the period it has evolved as a way of distinguishing the virile from the weak. A lot of research has been done on this theory, and is hence supported. It suggested that if a person is attractive physically, then it depicts a biological signal of good health. Looking back at ancestral times, if any one feature of the partner would be attractive, it was considered as an omen for elongated survival (Dobson, 2010). A BBC study reveals that a newborn, just like an adult would be more fascinated to see an attractive face. In a research when an attractive and a less attractive picture was shown to an infant, he would look at the attractive picture for longer period of time as compared to the less attractive picture. This shows that everyone is born with a pre-programmed understanding of what makes a person attractive (Babies prefer beautiful faces, 2004). The old concept and expression which has batted for centuries is the concept of Ã¢â¬Ëopposites attractÃ¢â¬â¢. This idea can be considered as subjective when it comes to work, colleagues, or friends. This is because one generally does not like dealing with a person who are unlike of us. On the contrary, this concept can be considered ideal when it comes to love relationships. Research shows that on the Extraversion/Introversion and Judging/Perceiving scales, people are usually attracted to opposites. People who are exciting and different tend to attract us more naturally. It is more due to the quest of completion rather than the exciting difference that plays a role in being attracted to others. Every person has strengths and weaknesses. Individuals who possess strengths that are missing in us are more likely to be seen as attractive. This makes the couple a well rounded, functioning unit. This is how being attracted to opposites can make one as a more complete individual (Personality and Relationships). Apart from the biological features, the color, which a person opts to wear, might also play a vital role in being a magnet to attraction. If a man chooses to wear the color red so it makes him more attractive and desirable to woman. However, research shows that women are unaware of this arousing effect. According to a psychology professor, Andrew Elliot, the charm of cherry color makes men appear more powerful. He conducted a research through which he found that men who wear red are considered by women as higher in status, more likely to make money, and more likely to be social. Hence, the high status judgment makes a man attractive to women (University of Rochester, 2010). The question of beauty and attractiveness remains unanswered since the time humans have been civilized. Research shows that majority of men and women spend one-third of their income on
Thursday, January 30, 2020
English and Spanish New World Colonies Essay Most of the powerful Western European Nations became involved in exploration of the Americas. Spain started the trend with the exploration of Columbus. Observers realized that Columbus had not discovered Spice Islands south of China, but a whole new world to the Europeans. Expeditions of exploration in search of wealth were the first action of the explorers of the new land. Immediate metal wealth was not found in the Caribbean Islands, but it was found later on the Americas mainland. England was then enticed to claim land for itself, and claimed the lands of North America and benefited from early trading posts. Spain and England both participated in the exploration and colonization of the Americas, but their ambitions were different based upon the surrounding environment. Spain focused its exploration on the lands surrounding the Gulf of Mexico, and the Pacific link on the Western coast of South America. Like the English, the indigenous people of the acted friendly towards the Spanish explorers, then resisted after unjust massacres occurred. This common reaction comes with the part of human nature that accepts others, and rejects them after they have participated in undesirable actions. Similar to the English, the Spanish also colonized the lands of the new world and developed large cities, which served as political and economic centers. The geography of Central and South America contributed greatly to the amount of metals and valuable resources that were extracted from the ground and from the artifacts of the natives. Unlike the English, the Spanish employed Viceroys, or officials to rule the new world to keep order. These Viceroys reported directly to the king, and could be removed from office by a court of lawyers. These rulers were essential to the vast, spread out landmass that the Spanish conquered. Encompassing many different cultures such as the Aztec and the Inca, it was essential for the Spanish to have powerful political figures to run the government in the place of a king. The English however, relied on direct ties to the royalty of England to run their colonies. The English explored the colder, less metal rich region of North America. Although North America lacked in valuable metals, it was the source of furs that would revolutionize the European economy. The English were similar inÃ their economic views of establishing permanent colonies after the wealth of the trapping of beavers was extracted. Located within North America were greatly diffused native populations of different tribes. This did not lend well to missionary work, or laborers. Unlike the Spanish, the English did not breed with the indigenous people, and they received slaves from Africa to satisfy their labor needs. But similarly to the Spanish, the English contributed a large amount of their revenue created in the Americas to add wealth to their kings, and to expand the size and power of their armies. Overall, the Spanish and English shared many economic goals in expansion and exploration. However, their political structure and social organization differed from the environmental conditions and the personal cultural views. The establishment in political, social, and economic centers of power was a parallel evolution between these two countrys colonies, as is the enrichment of their countrys treasury and power.
Wednesday, January 22, 2020
Pancreas Name and Functions The part I researched, which has only one name, is the pancreas. The pancreas is an organ that produces digestive juices necessary to break down food. It also produces insulin and glucagons. Insulin and glucagons are two hormones needed to break down sugar and to regulate our metabolism. The pancreas provides a lot of power to the body. For example, it allows you to eat many foods and allows your body to feed your cells the energy they need. It also allows you to exercise without decreasing your blood sugar. As you can see the pancreas has a lot of jobs, without the pancreas it would be difficult to live. Organization in the Body If you didnft have a pancreas you would have to give yourself hypodermic shots everyday for the rest of your life. The pancreas is part of the digestive system. Organs located near the pancreas are the stomach, the small intestine, the liver, and the gallbladder. The stomachfs function is to digest and store food and the small intestine and it is used for digestion and the absorption of nutrients. To absorb nutrients, take out poisons, and produce bile you need the liver, and to store that bile you need the gallbladder. The pancreas is located deep in the abdomen between the spine and stomach. It is partially behind your stomach but the other part nestles in the curve of the duodenum. The digestive juices in the pancreas flow through a duct to the duodenum into the small intestine. The digestive juices con...
Tuesday, January 14, 2020
DisneyÃ¢â¬â¢s Aladdin, despite its Arabian setting, is very American. The central theme of the story revolves around a poor young Arabian boy, Aladdin, who fell in love with the princess, Jasmine, and wished to marry her despite their difference in social class even if it meant doing so dishonestly at first. If one were to use Robin Williams JuniorÃ¢â¬â¢s key values of U. S. culture, it would be obvious that Americans made the film. Americans consider material comfort as a prize for success. In the movie, Aladdin became a prince after proving himself worthy to marry Jasmine.Americans also believe that dreams come true when you do something about it. In the movie, Aladdin was a worker or doer. He would rather fight for the good of everyone than simply leave everything to fate. He also reflected on his values regarding honesty before finally doing what was right. Aladdin did what he could to be a person worthy of Jasmine despite the problem of status. He was not content to dreaming . He committed himself to doing what he could to be with the princess. American culture is also very scientific and democratic even in fantasy movies like Aladdin.It was AladdinÃ¢â¬â¢s cunning practicality and logic that made him win over the evil JafarÃ¢â¬â¢s magic. In the end, it was the freedom of choice that allowed Jasmine to marry Aladdin despite his social status. Although Americans love democracy, being prejudiced is still evident in the film. Its opening songÃ¢â¬â¢s lyrics were changed after its first public showing because advocacy groups felt offended by the way the words described the Arab people as barbaric. Aladdin was depicted as a bit fair-skinned compared to his opponent. One can definitely say that even if Aladdin was originally Arabic, Disney made him American.
Monday, January 6, 2020
The Renaissance, a movement thatÃ stressed the ideas of the classical world, ended the medieval eraÃ and heralded the start of Europes modern age. Between the 14th and 17th centuries, art and science flourished as empires expanded and cultures mixed as never before. Although historians still debate someÃ causes of the Renaissance, they agree on a few basic points. AHunger for Discovery The courts and monasteries of Europe had long been repositories of manuscripts and texts, but a change in how scholars viewed them sparked a massive reappraisal of classical works in the Renaissance. Fourteenth-century writer Petrarch typified this, writing about his lust for discovering texts thatÃ had previously been ignored. As literacy spread and a middle class emerged, seeking out, reading, and spreading classical texts became commonplace. New libraries developed to facilitate access to old books. Ideas once forgotten were now reawakened, as was interest in their authors. Reintroduction of Classical Works During the Dark Ages, many classical European texts were lost or destroyed. Those that survived were hidden in churches and monasteries of the Byzantine Empire or in capitals of the Middle East. During the Renaissance, many of these texts were slowly reintroduced into Europe by merchants and scholars. In 1396 an official academic post for teaching Greek was created in Florence. The man hired, Manuel Chrysoloras, brought with him a copy of PtolemyÃ¢â¬â¢s Geography from the East. A huge number of Greek texts and scholars arrived in Europe with the fall of Constantinople in 1453. The Printing Press The invention of the printing pressÃ in 1440 was the game-changer. Finally, books could be mass produced for far less money and time than by the old handwritten methods. Ideas could be spread through libraries, booksellers, and schools in a way that wasnt possible before. The printed page was more legible than the elaborate script of books written longhand. Printing became a viable industry, creating new jobs and innovations. The spread of books also encouraged the study of literature itself, allowing new ideas to spread as cities and nations began establishing universities and other schools. Humanism Emerges Renaissance humanismÃ was a new manner of thinking and approaching the world. It has been called the earliest expression of the Renaissance and is described as both a product and a cause of the movement. Humanist thinkers challenged the mindset of the previously dominant school of scholarly thought, Scholasticism, as well as the Catholic Church, allowing the new thinking to develop. Art and Politics The new artists needed wealthy patrons to support them, and Renaissance Italy was especially fertile ground. Political changes in the ruling class shortly before this period had led to the rulers of most major city-states being Ã¢â¬Å"new menÃ¢â¬ without much political history. They attempted to legitimize themselves with conspicuous investment in and public flaunting of art and architecture. As the Renaissance spread, church and European rulers used their wealth to adopt the new styles to keep pace. The demand from theÃ elites wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t just artistic; they also relied upon ideas developed for their political models. The Prince, MachiavelliÃ¢â¬â¢sÃ guide for rulers, is a work of Renaissance political theory. The developing bureaucracies of Italy and the rest of Europe generated newÃ demand for highly educated humanists to fill the ranks of governments and bureaucracies. A new political and economic class emerged.Ã Death and Life In the middle of the 14thÃ century, the Black Death swept Europe, killing perhaps a third of the population. While devastating, the plague left survivors better off financially and socially, with the same wealth spread among fewer people. This was especially true in Italy, where social mobility was much greater. This newÃ wealth often was spent lavishly on arts, culture, and artisanal goods.Ã The merchant classes of regional powers such as ItalyÃ saw a great increase in wealth from their roles in trade. This growing mercantile class sparked a financial industry to manage their wealth, generating additional economic and social growth. War and Peace Periods of peace and war have been credited with allowing the Renaissance to spread. The end of the Hundred Years War between England and France in 1453 allowed Renaissance ideas to penetrate these nations as resources once consumed by war were funneled into the arts and sciences. By contrast, the Great Italian Wars of the early 16th century allowed Renaissance ideas to spread to France as its armies invaded Italy repeatedly over 50 years.